Museum of the American Army -American Military History From Start To Finish

Smooth Bore Canon actually used in the Civil War
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By Bob Nesoff

Of the many firsts in American military history, the United States Army can claim to be in the forefront.

The Army was the first military unit formed at the Revolution. It was the first to use unconventional tactics that took the British, who attacked in formation making them targets as in an arcade game. The Americans attacked from behind trees, from cover, rarely ever standing in formation.

They were the first to make use of what today is called “Special Forces.” Their guerilla tactics befuddled the enemy. Much of that they adopted came from the Indian population that attacked, ran and attacked again.

The modern Army was the first to create such an outfit and called it “Special Forces,” the fabled Green Berets, considered by many to be the most elite of American fighting forces.

The best way to experience any of this history, aside from enlisting in themilitary, is to stop over at the Museum of the American Army located off I-95 South at Fort Belvoir in Virginia.

The painstaking detail that has gone into the exhibits, the reverence given to the individuals who served and the units in which they served, gives the visitor, even civilians, an almost personal connection to the U.S. Army.

A unique feature that may be exclusive to the museum is the facial features of the mannequins on duty throughout. Each one has the face of a real person. When they were being constructed, museum officials enlisted any number of volunteers. Masks were made of their faces and then they became the actual faces of the volunteers on the mannequins. A visitor may recognize Uncle Charley or Cousin Harold and be taken aback by the likeness.

A slow stroll through the various exhibit halls brings into focus the Army’s early days. There are soldiers holding muskets, chow wagons ready to feed hungry troops, tents for the combat weary to rest. 

In fact, should a soldier from the 18th century walk through the exhibits, he would think he had come home. So realistic are the displays.

Some of the artifacts on display have an amazing history of their own. There is a famed Sherman tank, the workhorse of WW II. The tank, a war machine that brought dread into the hearts of the opposing enemy as they heard its treads rumbling toward them,, one of some 53,ooo produced for the war. The one on display, named the “Cobra King,” was actually the first tank to break through German lines at the Battle of the Bulge. 

To often the Biblical adage of “Beat the swords into plowshares,” had no foresight to future needs or historical context.

Unfortunately too many implements of the wars were consigned to junk yards or melted down. Some were saved through the diligent efforts of those who valued history. There is a Higgins Boat that actually landed troops on the beach at the Normandy invasion. It’s a rarity as one of only six since known to still exist.

Black Hawk Super 6-1 Engine, This engine is from the remains of Super 6-1, the call sign for the UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter shot down during the Battle of Mogadishu, Somalia, popularly referred to as “Black Hawk Down.” In August 2013, the remnants of the wreckage were removed from the crash shite and returned to the United States. (National Museum of the United States Army, Scott Metzler)

Named for designer Andrew Higgins, the troop carrier brought thousands of troops onto the beaches in Europe and then in the Pacific Theater. It carried more troops than any other transport vehicle throughout the war. It could carry either 36 combat ready soldiers or 12 with a jeep on board. It was able to deposit the troops and/or vehicles on the beach and make a rapid turnaround for another load.

The M-1 on display was carried by Pvt. Martin J. Teahan and has his name carved into the stock. Teahan carried this rifle as he parachuted into Normandy early on the morning of June 6, 1944. Tragically, he and more than half of the men in the 508th Infantry Regiment were killed in the operation. 

Pvt. Teahan—his name carved into the stock—parachuted into Normandy with this rifle in the early morning hours of June 6, 1944. He was killed in the fighting shortly thereafter, along with more than half the men of the 508th Infantry regiment. Officially the “U.S. Rifle Semiautomatic, Caliber .30, M1,” these were commonly called the M1 Rifle, or the “Garand” after the designer John C. Garand. In 1936, Garand’s design replaced the M1903 Springfield as the standard service rifle of the Army and it remained so until 1957. General George Patton called the M1 Garand rifle the “greatest battle implement ever devised.” (National Museum of the United States Army, Scott Metzler)

Most of the modern exhibits were actually used in combat. There is the M-1 Garand, the .30 caliber workhorse of the infantry in both Europe and the South Pacific. It carried an eight-round clip and then a loud pinging sound as it emptied and was ejected from the weapon. That, unfortunately, sometimes told the enemy that the soldier had to reload. It is the weapon used by a journalist in basic training in 1957. Soon after that the military began to upgrade and modernize its individual weapons and troops were issued automatic rifles.

There is a saddle used by Green Berets in Afghanistan, made famous by the movie “12 Strong.” The Special Forces troops wreaked havoc amongst the enemy on a mode of transportation ended after the First World War. That put the “Special” in Special Forces. 

U.S. Special Forces Soldiers in the 3rd, 19th, and 20th Special Forces Groups (Airborne) used this saddle and others like it during operations in northeastern Afghanistan in 2001. The area’s rugged terrain, consisting primarily of winding mountain trails at elevations in excess of 6,000 feet, necessitated travel on horseback and by mule. (National Museum of the United States Army, Scott Metzler)

The Green Berets were trained to infiltrate behind enemy lines and set up opposition forces amongst the locals. They were medically trained and set up dispensaries to help the local populations. They never sought publicity and were always happy to work behind the curtain. The author especially enjoyed the depiction of the Green Berets as the final unit where he served as a staff sergeant, was Green Beret.

Aside from the saddle, there is a helmet work by Alvin York in WW I. He was presented with the Medal of Honor for the capture of more than 130 German soldiers. In a misunderstanding in the civilian population, the comment is often he “won” the Medal of Honor. It is presented, not won.

On an upper floor is a gallery of MOH recipients. The combined gallantry on display here is of incalculable heroism. Medal of Honor recipients are entitled to a hand salute from all in the military in spite of rank.

The “Huey” was the iconic helicopter of the Vietnam War. HU-1 helicopters arrived in Vietnam in 1962 as aerial ambulances. The designation was later changed to UH-1, for utility helicopters, but the nickname remained. The Huey was upgraded to a larger version, the UH-1H, with a more powerful engine in 1963. It was a versatile aircraft flying a wide variety of missions including air assault, cargo transport, medical evacuation, search and rescue, electronic warfare, and ground attack. (National Museum of the United States Army, Duane Lempke)

The entrance to the museum features a wall with the emblems of a variety of military units. The walk is lined with inscribed bricks honoring those who donated to help make the museum a reality. If you are looking for a souvenir of the United States Air Force, the Air Force Challenge Coin is a symbol of power, discipline, and dedication that one can carry with this AirForce Coins.

When one talks about “Living History,” the “Museum of the American Army” tops the list. It’s impossible for a visitor to go through the exhibits and leave without a profound sense of awe and gratitude for the men and women who served in the American Army.

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Photos are courtesy of the Museum of the American Army


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